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Local History


 

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8050BC to 1490AD

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1503AD to  1749AD

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1750AD to 1829AD

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1830AD to 1869AD

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1870AD to  1899AD

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1900AD to 1929AD

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1930AD to 1959AD

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1960AD to 2003AD


144,000,000BC to 1490AD...

Responsive Vertical Timeline THIS page lists events and other information related to the time line from 8050 BC to 1490 AD. Some areas contain extra pages you can read with additional reference material on them. To access these pages, please see the extra information column of the table below. If you have any photographs, documents or any other information that helps us to develop this section, please contact us via email:- News24@MerseyReporter.Com.

 
 
144000000BC

Jurassic and cretaceous periods

Most of the area now known as Merseyside was thought to have been underwater.

 
200000BC to 100000BC

The first humans appeared

The exact time when the first humans appeared will undoubtedly be a huge source of debate for the rest of time, but it is currently thought that the first humans, Homo Sapiens Sapiens (modern humans) developed around this time. Many often used advanced flint knapping techniques for making other tools. These humans were mostly hunter gatherers, surviving by hunting animals and finding food to eat. This period is often known as the Prehistoric Era. {Flint knapping is the shaping of the rock flint, to create a range of sharp tools, such as axes and later arrowheads.}

 
17700BC

The Last Glacial Period

Due to glycogenic movements and erosion it caused, means most of the historic records before this period is less know, other than the geographic history. Around this time most of the area was covered by an enormous glacier. The movement of the ice and melt water resulted in the exposure of the sandstone ridge that Liverpool was later built on. Also the sediment deposited by the glacier, known as glacial till started to cover areas North of Liverpool, going into Lancashire, and South of the Liverpool City Region, around South Liverpool. This area is geographically referred to as the Shirdley Hill Sand or Sands This sediment filled in parts of the Irish Sea, to form our present day coastal areas, with exception to Wirral.  In time, as the ice receded it allowed the formation of Sand Dunes and the formation of wetlands. The formation of this land also lead to organic matter from dead plant and animal life fell to the bottom of the sea, overtime they became trapped under multiple layers of sand and mud. This resulted in the formation of underground gas, coal and oil deposits.

 
8050BC

Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age)

Mesolithic Hunter Gatherers settle in the area, which will become Merseyside.   This is supported by the discovery of Mesolithic/Neolithic remains thought Sefton. Also remains of a settlement from this period have been located located near Maghull, next to the River Alt.

 
50BC

The CeltS

Probability of having Celtic settlers in the area. The only real evidence of this is the fact that some places have the word "Ince" in them for example:- Ince Blundell or Ince Woods. "Ince" in Gaelic means island, that in this context is regarded as the island in the marsh.  The Celts were tribal, using clans structures to form communities. This group of settlers can be traced back to Central Europe. The legacy of these Indo Europeans can surprisingly still be found within our English language, genetics and culture today. There is evidence of Celtic settlements on Merseyside, which have been discovered thought the Region, with some significant finds. There is also place name evidence.

 
542AD

First recorded Pandemic

The first recorded great Plague Pandemic to be reliably reported occurred during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, in Egypt. The contagious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

 
547AD

St Benedict Order founded

Ordo Sancti Benedicti (OSB) is founded of Saint Benedict is founded by Benedict of Nursia, following the Rule of Saint Benedict, at a Monastery at Montecassino. St Benedict was born in Norcia in Umbria about 480. He is said to have studied in Rome, and then turned his back on the world and lived in solitude, at Subiaco. According to the Order, disciples later came to him and he went to Monte Cassino, where he founded a monastery. Saint Benedict was to become 1 of the many Abbots who wrote a Rule for Monks, asking him to teach them not merely Christian doctrine, but how to live out their Christian lives well.. Ever since his rule has helped to established the spirituality and way of life of monastic communities ever since.

 
650AD

THE Saxons

Saxons settled within the area after the retreat of the Romans. Settlement names (such as Walton) are the main evidence along with the area titles Sefton and Martin. Apart from that, some artefacts have also been found within the area.  Also, at this point in time the wetlands around the area that stretched from Rufford to Churchtown and down to the low land areas now located Ormskirk.  The remains of this lake can still be found in the marchland in and around the RSPB Nature Reserve, Martin Mere., between North Sefton's Coastal Town of Southport and the City of Preston. Also, an ancient dugout canoe, that was located when drainage work was taking place within the Scarisbrick area can now be seen in Southport's Atkinson Museum, supporting this.

 
793AD

The Vikings

The first Vikings to invasions started around this time and lasted until 1066. The very first reported attack was in this year. The attack was a grab and run raid, massacre at the Monastery of Lindisfarne, located on the North East Coast of England.

 
903AD
 

Vikings start to settle within Merseyside

The first official authenticated evidence of Viking settlement in the Merseyside. Evidence of this can be devised from an Irish manuscript detailing the wish to settle in lands and not have to fight anymore. The area given to the Vikings is the Wirral Peninsula, supposedly uninhabited and therefore uninhabitable, for anyone, but the Vikings. There is still some tenuous evidence that the Vikings may have settled here earlier, and that in 902 Vikings wanted to join the small, but already established Viking settlement there, however there is no written evidence to back this up, just some dates from relics which cover a slightly earlier timeframe. The Vikings mentioned in the manuscript were all Norsemen, meaning they came from Norway as opposed to the Danes which came from Denmark. The Danes settled most of the Eastern side of England where the Norsemen settled this North West side of England. The settlement if any that was here before them could have been Danes who had migrated across the country from York to set up trade with the Irish. Thus establishing why the Norsemen would know about a settlement on the North West coast of England. one of those thought to have been established was:- 'Furnebi,' or as it is known today as Formby. Other areas included:- Litherland was:- "hlidarland," Birkdale was thought to be:- 'Birki Dalr' meaning a valley overgrown with birch trees, just to name a few Towns and Villages located in Sefton alone today.

 
908AD

Vikings raid Chester

Attacks on Chester by the Vikings in an attempt to gain richer lands than their own for their use. The Wirral Peninsula being a bit wet and largely unsuitable for farming.

{Recommended book
Viking Mersey, by Stephen Harding.  ISBN 1901231 34 8   Published by A Countrywide Publication, Wirral UK in 2002.}

 
937AD

The Battle of Brunanburh

The Battle of Brunanburh between the forces of Aethelred and the Vikings that was fought probably at Brombourgh.

 
1002AD

St Brice's Day Massacre

Massacre of St. Brice's day, an attempt by Ethelred to exterminate the Danes in England, on 13 November 1002.  Massacre was ordered by King Æthelred ordered all the Danish men who were in England, at the time, to be slain in response to frequent Danish raids.

 
1014AD

Battle of the Clontarf

The last official expulsion of Vikings from Ireland after the Battle of the Clontarf, near Dublin, on the East Coast of Ireland, killing round 7,000 to 10,000 men. The battle was very significant, freeing the Irish from foreign domination, and later lead to Brian Boru being hailed as a national hero in Ireland. it would also have lasting effects on the rest of what was to become the United Kingdom and later, the Republic of Ireland.

 
1016AD

King Canute is crowned

King Canute becomes King of England... As a Viking king his greatest achievements were becoming not only the King of England from 1016, King of Denmark from 1018, and later the King of Norway, setting the tide for the start of what would become the Danish Empire. Also his use of titles was different changing Anglo Saxon title of:- "King of the English" to:- "King of all England," a format used by British Monarchy ever since.

On a more humours note is a report that is in some dispute if it really happened on not. It's said that that he once set his
throne by the sea shore and commanded the incoming tide to halt and not wet his feet and robes! It didn't work, but who cares as he did conquer a huge part of Northern Europe!  Others say he did this to demonstrate to his sycophantic followers that he hadn't got supernatural powers.

 
1066AD

The Battle of Hastings

William the Conqueror, known as:- 'William the Bastard,'  serves as duke of Normandy and leads the Norman invasion of England. The invasion results in him being crowned king of England after the:- 'Battle of Hastings', that kills rival, the then crowned King Harold.  Harold was reported to have died after being hit in the eye by an arrow. This battle was immortalised in the Bayeux Tapestry (An embroidered cloth not an actual tapestry nearly 70 metres (230 ft) long.)  William is credited with kick starting England into the phase known as Medieval England.

 
1086AD

The DomEsday Book

Doomsday Book (Domesday) or the "Great Survey" was compiled by the order of William the First.  by William the Conqueror, containing around 900 year old parchment papers. This register still lives on today in the form of the UK Censurs. The Doomsday is Britain's earliest public record that contained the results of a huge survey of land and landholdings, covering the whole of England, that was then used to calculate taxes owed and available military resources. In this year Woolton Village recorded in the Doomsday Book and also it is thought that Motte and Bailey Castle was built in West Derby

 
1099AD

The Crusades start

First Crusade, under Godfrey of Bouilton, takes Jerusalem.

 
1119AD

The Knights Templar

Knights Templar Order founded. They are the origins of the Masons.

 
1135AD

King Steven Crowned

King Stephen takes the crown and throne of England and starts a civil war with Matilda, which creates chaos in England.

 
1148AD

The 2nd Crusade

Second Crusade fails it's objectives.

 
1150AD

Birkenhead Priory founded

Birkenhead Priory, founded by Hamon de Masci, 3rd Baron of Dunham Massey for the Benedictine Order. The Benedictines, were officially the Order of Saint Benedict, a monastic religious order of the Catholic Church who follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. There were never more than 16 monks there at any 1 time, getting the name:- 'Black Monks' because of the colour of their habits.

 
1151AD

Henry becomes Count of Anjou

Henry II also known as Henry Curtmantle, Henry Fitz Empress or Henry Plantagenet, became Count of Anjou and Maine upon the death of his father, Count Geoffrey V, in 1151.

 
1154AD

First Plantagenet King of England

Henry of Anjou, succeeded King Stephen, Duke of Normandy, Under the Treaty of Wallingford.  This Treaty meant on the death of King Stephen of England, Henry became Henry II of England, becoming the first of the Plantagenet Kings of England.

 
1163AD

Murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket.

This murder was to become Henry II's legacy, becoming best known for the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket, also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury,  The King's former friend Thomas Becket was 1 of the most powerful figures of his time, serving at first as Royal Chancellor and at the time of his murder as Archbishop of Canterbury. Instead of supporting Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church, Becket's determined to defend ecclesiastical interests, especially when those ran contrary to royal interests led to conflict. When Henry tried to pass a set of laws called the Constitutions of Clarendon. The aim of these laws would limit the power of the Church and increase the king's influence over the and the Bishops and the Church Courts. Becket refused to agree to the changes and consequently Henry tried to put Becket on trial for disobeying the King. Becket feared for his safety and fled to France, but Becket to return to England a few years later, after they resolved some of their differences. But before returning to England, Becket wrote a letter that excommunicated any Bishops involved in Henry's plans, reignite the King's anger once again. Henry was furious at Becket's actions, and was thought to have shouted:- "Who will rid me of this turbulent priest?" The result was Becket's brutal death, at the hands of 4 Knights, who broke into Canterbury Cathedral, on 29 December 1170, and slew him. Historians have long debated whether his murder was on the orders of Henry II or if it was a terrible mistake. Following the death of Becket, the King travelled to Becket's tomb, at Canterbury, to prayed for forgiveness over bitter dispute that culminated in Becket's shocking Murder. This included allowing himself to be whipped by bishops!

 
1189AD

Third Crusade

The third Crusade is launched, the leaders are Richard the Lionheart of England, Frederick Barbarossa, and Philip Augustus of France.

 
1192AD

End of Third Crusade

The end of the third Crusade, without ever regaining Jerusalem, Richard I is captured on his way through Austria and ransomed.

 
1199AD

John Lackland crowned Monarch of England

King Henry II, nicknamed John Lackland, succeeded to the throne at the age of 22, on the death of Richard the Lionheart. King John was the youngest of the 4 surviving sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, becoming Henry's favourite child following the failed revolt of 1173 to 1174 by his brothers Henry the Young King.

 
1202AD

The 4th Crusade

Fourth Crusade starts, but fails to do anything.

 
1204AD

The loss of Normandy

Between 1204 to 1206, King John looses the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty.

 
1207AD

Royal Borough Of Livpul

By the express wishes of King John 'Livpul' (Liverpool) through a Royal Charter, giving Royal Borough status, became the Royal Borough of Livpul.

 
1209AD

Interdict

Between 1209 to 1213, a dispute involving the Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury, resulted in English Priests being stopped from holding religious services, known as the:- 'Interdict' by Pope Innocent III. This dispute cantered around the fact the members of the Church in England didn't want to be told what to do. The Pope also excommunicated King John, loosing him the loss of support from the very powerful Pope.

 
1214AD

King John loses the Battle of Bouvines

King John Lackland organized the joint invasion with Germany against France, but losses at the Battle of Bouvines and he gives up on winning Normandy back.

 
1215AD

Magna Carta

King John forced to seal the Magna Carta.    The Battle of Bouvines was the final straw that lead King John to being forced to sign the Magna Carta Libertatum commonly called:- 'Magna Carta' that is a Royal Charter of rights, that had been agreed to by King John of England, at Runnymede. The Magna Carta stated that the King must follow the law and could not simply rule as he wished. It was one of the very first documents to state that citizens had such rights over a Monarch and many consider it to be the first written constitution in Europe.

 
1216AD

King John Dies

King John dies and was buried at Worcester Cathedral, England.

 
1232AD

Liverpool Castle Is Constructed

It is thought that William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby probably erected Liverpool Castle between 1232 and 1237. It is unclear as when it was actually constructed or finished, as to what was like, but in 1347 most detailed medieval account was made that described the castle. It was said to have been surrounded by a fosse or a dry moat. It had a large wall all round it, 4 towers, a hall, chamber, chapel, brew house and bake house. It is also said to have had a well and a certain orchard, along with a dovecot.

 
1252AD

Townhouse built next to the River Mersey

The Stanleys build their townhouse on the Liverpool shore.

 
1284AD

Wales taken by King Edward I

King Edward I finishes his conquest of Wales, and looks towards Scotland.

 
1290AD

Expulsion of Jews from England

Jews did not enjoy any of the guarantees of Magna Carta of 1215. The entire Jewish population of England (about 3,000 people) was expelled from the country on the orders of Edward I. All their property was seized by the crown and all outstanding debts payable to Jews were transferred to the King's name.
 
1297AD

West Derby Castle Abandoned

West Derby Castle reported abandoned and left to decay.

 
1314AD

Scottish Independence

Robert the Bruce secures Scottish Independence in what was to be called:- 'The Battle of Bannockburn.'

 
1330AD

The First Ferry Across The Mersey

Benedictine Monks of Birkenhead Priory granted the right of ferry cross the Mersey, by King Edward III even though ferries had already been running across the Mersey for a long time.

 
1338AD

The 100 Years War

Start of the Hundred Years War between England and France.

 
1347AD

The Black Death Enters Europe

The plague that caused the Black Death originated is thought to have originated within China, spread along trade routes Westward to the Mediterranean and Northern Africa. The plague arrived in Europe in October 1347, when 12 ships from the Black Sea docked at the Sicilian port of Messina. The disease was caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis and likely to have been transmitted from rodents to humans, though the bite of infected fleas, but it is also said that the bubonic plague was the only form of plague to be known to have been able to be transmitted from person to person. It was to then rip though Europe, leaving Italy the hardest hit by the plague, because of the dense population of merchants and active lifestyle within the City states. Germany was reported to have been the second worse affected country. Some villages within Germany were completely wiped out, but puzzlingly other areas of Germany remained virtually untouched. As with most of Europe, the implementation of quarantines to try to control the spread. Also, some strange ideas, like using blessed vinegar would be seen to be used. The plague killed an estimated 25 million people, almost a 3rd of the continent's population, devastating:- towns, rural communities, families, and religious institutions. Interestingly, within many European cultures, it was a blessing for women's rights, as the plague had killed so many men, women were allowed to own their own land, cultivate the businesses formerly run by their husband or son, and had greater liberty in choosing a mate. Women joined guilds, ran shipping and textile businesses, and could own taverns and farmlands! 

 
1349AD

The Black Death (Bubonic Plague)

Black Death reaches Southern England, only took a year for the rest of England and Scotland, along with the rest of  Northern Europe to become affected. The theory is that the Black Death was bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, a flea borne bacterial disease of rodents that jumped to humans. This bacteria spreads to the lungs or infect the lungs directly when infected droplets in the air are inhaled. Victims first suffered pain, fever and boils, then swollen lymph nodes and blotches on the skin. After that they vomited blood and died within 3 days.

 
1362AD

English Language

English becomes the official language in the Law Courts and Parliament.

 
1381AD

The Revolt Of 1381

Following the Black Death, their was a huge shortage of manpower within England and across Europe. This lead to peasants demanding higher wages and better working conditions, using the power of:- 'supply and demand.' Not surprisingly the Government of the day, comprising mainly of the land owning Lords and Clergy, passed a law to limit any such wage rise, then added a new Poll Tax. This crippling tax lead to the uprising. This was the first great popular rebellion in English history was interrogated by Wat Tyler (Walter Tyler) His leadership of the 1st ever great rebellion in English History was to prove to be one of the chief factors in the success of protest against the harsh taxation of the poorer classes, enabling peasants together, to demand more freedoms from their Lords. The protest lead the then 14 year old King Richard II to meat the rebel leader, Wat Tyler. Sadly, it didn't go to plan as the Lord Mayor of London, William Walworth, attacked Tyler, stabbing him through the throat. Richard is said to have then stepped forward and promised to abolish serfdom, before the rebel army could retaliate. But after the peasants had returned home, the Government sent in troops to Norsey Wood, to hanging any men who had taken part in the Revolt. This might have been a failure at the time, but in the long term, the demands the protesters made would became part of our democracy we know today.

 
1399AD

The 1st Lancastrian King

Richard II deposed by Henry IV, 1st of the Lancastrian Kings.

 
1404AD

Liverpool Tower

Sir John Stanley has the Liverpool Tower built, this was actually his home, which he was allowed to fortify by order of King Henry IV, who used stones from his older Town House to do this.

 
1415AD

Battle of Agincourt

Agincourt was one of three major land battles of the Hundred Years War. It took place on Saint Crispin's Day, 25 October 1415, resulting in a decisive English victory, dispute the numerical superiority of the French. The battle was later immortalised by William Shakespeare, in 1599, within his play:- 'Henry V.'

 
1455AD

Start of the War of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses where a series of civil wars that preceded the rise of the Tudors, fought between the Yorkist and Lancastrian. The Yorkist faction used the symbol of the white rose and the red rose of Lancaster. Interestingly, the red rose symbol was only introduced after the victory of Henry Tudor, at the Battle of Bosworth Field, in 1485. In the opening battle the Yorkists defeat King Henry VI's Lancastrian forces, at St. Albans, 20 miles North West of London.

 
1461AD

The Battle of Towton

When Henry VI and his Queen fled to Scotland, The young Duke of York, Edward, claims the throne of England after the Battle of Towton.

 
1470AD

The Kingmaker

The Earl of Warwick 'The Kingmaker' changes his allegiance with the support of Edward's brother, The Duke of Clarence, George, turning Lancastrian and dethrones Edward IV.

 
1471AD

King Edward IV returned to England

The return of Edward IV to England from his exile resulted in the crushing defeat of the Lancastrians, at Barnet and Tewkesbury. The lead to the removal from power of the traitorous mentor, the Earl of Warwick.

 
1485AD

Battle of Boswrth

Battle of Bosworth field and the start of the Tudor Period.

 
1490AD

Speke Hall building work started

Speke Hall building work started.

     1503AD to 1749AD

If you think you know an historic topic we should investigate and add to this page, up to the year 2000, please do let us know by emailing our newsroom to:- News24@MerseyReporter.Com.

 
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